Dr. Carrie R. Valentine obtained a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Chemistry from the Honors College at the University of Oregon in 1968 and a Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1975. She took post-doctoral training both at the University of Montana and the University of California-Davis. Dr. Valentine taught microbiology and molecular biology to nursing, medical, and dental students at the Oral Roberts University School of Medicine in Tulsa, Oklahoma from 1979-1990. From 1990-1992 she was a faculty member within the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Arkansas College of Medicine in Little Rock, Arkansas. In 1992 she accepted a position as a Research Microbiologist for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) in Jefferson, Arkansas, until retiring in 2008, when she received the FDA Distinguished Career Service Award. She now teaches online biology for Grand Canyon University and works with her husband, Dr. Jimmie Valentine on consultations and scientific writing. Recent chapters written with her husband concern both ante- and post-mortem fermentation of human specimens and the scientific status of alcohol testing. Dr. Valentine is also a licensed private pilot and regularly flies with her husband, also a pilot and certified flight instructor, throughout the country.